Alphabetical order

  • Circular Economy

    Mobility as a service

    Mobility as a service is a business model in which public and private transportation services are offered as one integrated service. In this mobility model, the user does not own the means of transportation but pays for its functionality for a limited period of time.

    MaaS services can include car sharing, bike sharing, e-scooter sharing, and other mobility services.

    In addition, MaaS services offer a number of benefits, including: increased flexibility, increased efficiency, and increased sustainability.

  • Circular Economy

    Machinery as a service

    Machinery as a service is a business model in which a company offers one or more machines as a service to its customers.

    The supplier maintains, upgrades and repairs the machine, while the customer pays a monthly or annual fee to access the service.

    Maas offers a number of advantages over traditional machine purchase and maintenance models, including: reduced costs, increased flexibility, and improved productivity.

  • Circular Economy

    Biogas Plant

    A biogas plant is a facility that uses anaerobic digestion to produce biogas from organic material.

    Biogas is a renewable fuel that can be used to generate electricity, heat, or vehicle fuel.

    Biogas plants can be built in a variety of sizes, depending on the volume of organic material they need to process empossible in a variety of sectors, including agriculture, the food industry, the beverage industry, and the wastewater treatment industry.

  • Circular Economy

    Vegetable by-product

    According to the relevant legislation, namely Article 1(1)(b) of Legislative Decree No. 116 of Sept. 3, 2020, Vegetable By-Product (V.O.P.) is “any plant material that is not intended for human consumption, but can be used for a variety of purposes, including animal feed, energy production, fertilizer production, bioplastics production, and the production of building materials.”

    VOCs can be produced in a number of sectors, including agriculture, the food industry, the beverage industry and the wood industry, and can be used for a variety of purposes.

  • Circular Economy

    Food by-product

    According to the relevant legislation, namely Article 2 of Regulation (EC) No. 1069/2009, a Food By-Product (SOA) is “a whole body or part of an animal, a product of animal origin or another product obtained from an animal not intended for human consumption, including ova, embryos and semen.”

    The purpose of this decree is to ensure food safety and public health, as well as to protect the environment. It also establishes a set of requirements for the production, processing, transportation and disposal of ABPs.

  • Circular Economy

    Food waste

    A food waste according to Legislative Decree No. 116 of September 3, 2020, amending Legislative Decree No. 152 of April 3, 2006, Article 1, Paragraph 1 (a) is defined as:

    any substance or product intended for human consumption that has become waste because the person who has it has discarded it, intends to discard it, or is obliged to discard it.

  • Circular Economy

    Ex-food product

    An ex-food product is a product created for human consumption, which, for various reasons, such as expiration, the presence of aesthetic defects, or simply because it has gone unsold, can no longer be used for its original purpose.

    However, this food-product can be used for other purposes, such as as feed, thus to animal feed, or for energy production within biogas plants, so as to avoid its waste.

  • Circular Economy

    Butterfly Diagram

    The circular economy system diagram, known as the butterfly diagram, illustrates the continuous flow of materials in a circular economy.

    There are two main cycles – the technical cycle and the biological cycle.

    In the technical cycle, products and materials are kept in circulation through processes such as reuse, repair, remanufacture and recycling.

    In the biological cycle, the nutrients from biodegradable materials are returned to the Earth to regenerate nature.

  • Circular Economy Green Marketing

    Life Cycle Inventory

    Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) is a technique used in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to systematically collect and quantify information about inputs, outputs, and environmental impacts associated with a product, process, or service throughout its life cycle.

    The quality and completeness of LCI data has a significant impact on the accuracy and reliability of LCA results.

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published standards for conducting LCAs, including ISO 14040 and ISO 14044, which provide guidelines for the LCI phase of evaluation.

  • Circular Economy Green Marketing

    Zero Waste

    Zero Waste (translated “Zero Waste”) is a philosophy and lifestyle that aims to reduce the amount of waste that is generated and sent to landfills or incinerators.

    The goal of zero waste is to redesign how we produce and consume goods so that nothing is wasted or thrown away.

    The concept of zero waste is based on the idea of a Circular Economy, where resources are kept in use for as long as possible, and waste is minimized through the use of sustainable materials and production methods.

  • Circular Economy Companies


    A By-product is a processing waste resulting from industrial processes, which is reused in another production process as a virgin raw material, but does not undergo any processing and recovery.

    By-products, therefore, are those residues that do not fall within the management of company waste, in fact they can be used as raw material in a production chain also different from that from which the by-product was originated.


  • Circular Economy Companies

    Industrial Symbiosis

    Industrial symbiosis means the interaction between different industrial plants, grouped in districts or at a distance useful to make the operation feasible, used in order to maximize the reuse of resources, normally considered waste and optimizing knowledge and skills between companies.


  • Circular Economy Companies


    Creative Reuse (or Upcycling) is a practice that consists in transforming objects or waste materials into products of greater value and utility than their original state, with the aim of finding an alternative use to an object that can no longer meet its function for which it was created.

    Unlike recycling, which involves breaking down materials and transforming them into new products, upcycling aims to reuse existing objects in a creative and innovative way.

    Upcycling can be applied to different types of materials, including paper, plastic, textiles, metal and wood.

    An example of Creative Reuse can be the reuse of pallets for home or urban furniture.

  • Circular Economy


    The term “market remittance” (or Re-marketing) refers to all strategies for the reintegration, in the market and in primary and secondary channels, of products that have undergone one or more processes related to the Circular Economy and must be resold.

  • Circular Economy


    Remanufacture is one of the strategies contained within the R-strategies framework.

    The purpose of this action is to bring the product back to the original conditions of use, by replacing parts and components no longer usable product itself.

  • Circular Economy


    Refuse is one of the strategies contained within the R-strategies framework.

    The purpose of this action is to avoid incorrect use of the product, reloading instead the same use with a different product.

    An example of this is multifunctional products.

  • Circular Economy


    Reduce is one of the strategies contained within the R-strategies framework.

    The objective of this action is to think about more efficient production or consumption methods, which imply less use of raw materials, processed materials and energy.

  • Circular Economy


    Recycle is one of the strategies contained within the R-strategist framework.

    The purpose of the actions related to recycling is to recover the value of the materials present in the product, which for various aspects such as regulatory or dysfunction, are destined to become waste and be disposed of.

  • Green Marketing Circular Economy

    Product as a Service

    The product as a service(PaaS) is a business model that consists in offering a product as a continuous service, rather than as a single purchase.

    In this model, the consumer pays for access to the product (temporary ownership), rather than for possession of the product itself, offering greater flexibility and freedom of choice, without having to bear the costs and responsibilities associated with ownership of a product.

    paas requires a change of mentality for both consumers and companies, who must get used to thinking of products as long-term services.

  • Green Marketing Circular Economy

    Principle of 9 R

    The 9 R principle is a practical guide to reducing waste and promoting environmental sustainability.

    The 9 Rs refer to nine actions that can be taken to reduce the environmental impact of an activity or a product, with a view to circularity, and are: Rethink, Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Repair, Refurbish, Remanufacture, Recycle and Recover.

  • Circular Economy

    Blue Economy

    The Blue Economy is a branch of the Green Economy, an economic model dedicated to the construction of a sustainable economic system through technological innovation.

    The goal of the blue economy is to achieve zero carbon emissions.

    The Blue Economy is based on innovation through the development of physical principles and the reuse of existing resources, for example, using scientific methods such as biomimicry.

    The model was proposed by Gunter Pauli in the book: “The Blue Economy: 10 years, 100 Innovation, 100 Million jobs”.

  • Circular Economy


    Neomaterials are innovative materials derived from production processes that follow the principles of the Circular Economy.

    There are 3 broad categories of neomaterials:

    • “bio-based”, materials of plant and animal origin or formed by micro-organisms.
    • The “neo-classics”, made from recycled materials that are now the basis of various production processes.
    • The “ex novo”, obtained thanks to waste and waste recovery processes of different industries and waste from incinerators and extracting CO2 from the atmosphere.
  • Circular Economy Companies

    Secondary Raw Material

    The Second Raw Material is a production waste, which, through specific recovery processes, is used in a production process equal to or different from the one that generated it.

    In this context, Italy refers to the category called by-product.

    The second raw material plays a crucial role in the Circular Economy, as it allows to reduce the dependence on virgin raw materials, allowing to reduce the environmental impact associated with the extraction of new raw materials and the production of products from scratch.

    Through the recycling of existing materials, the second raw material allows to create a longer life cycle for products and to reduce the amount of waste destined for landfills.

  • Circular Economy Companies

    Machines as a Service

    Machine as a service (maas) is a business model where companies provide their customers with access to machines or equipment as a service, rather than selling the machines themselves.

    It is an example of the more general product-as-a-service.

    In this business model, the companies that provide the service are responsible for the purchase, maintenance and upgrade of the machines, while customers pay only for their actual use, without having to invest in their acquisition.

    In this way, the companies that offer the service can provide high quality and updated machines, ensure greater flexibility and cost control for customers, and improve resource utilization, creating long-lasting relationships with customers.

  • Circular Economy Companies

    Reverse Logistics

    Reverse logistics is the process of backward planning of material flows, from the point of consumption to the point of origin, in order to recover value or ensure proper disposal or recycling of products, materials or waste.

    Unlike traditional logistics, which deals with the transport of products from the producer to the final consumer, reverse logistics manages the movement of used products, defective or no longer necessary from the point of end of life, for their recycling, repair and reuse.

    In a circular economy, where products and materials are designed to be reused and recycled, reverse logistics allows the recovery of useful materials and products that would otherwise have been lost, creating new business and recycling opportunities.

    Reverse logistics is a key element of environmental sustainability and can bring many benefits to the companies that implement it, including reducing costs and increasing efficiency, as well as creating a competitive advantage in the market.

  • Circular Economy

    Circularity Indicators

    The Indicators of Circularity are tools of different type and form useful to the companies in order to understand their degree of circularity to general level or the level of circularity of a determined action, product or service.

    Some examples of these indicators are Circulytics and Material Circularity Indicator, both created by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation.


  • Circular Economy Companies

    Linear Economy

    The linear economy is a traditional economic model based on the use of natural and material resources to produce goods, which are then used and, at the end of their life cycle, disposed of as waste.

    This model is characterized by a production logic “produce, consume, dispose of”, which does not take into account the environmental and social consequences of production activities.

    This model generates a high amount of waste and pollution, aggravates resource scarcity problems and contributes to climate change.

    The linear economy has been adopted globally for decades and has generated a number of negative impacts on the environment and society, including biodiversity loss, air and water pollution, climate change and resource scarcity.

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the adoption of Circular Economy models, which provide for the recovery and reuse of resources, in order to reduce waste and promote environmental sustainability.

  • Companies Circular Economy

    Perfomance-based Economy

    Performance-based economy is an economic model that combines business performance management with the adoption of circular practices.

    The main objective is to maximize the economic and environmental value generated by business activities, reducing waste and promoting the recovery and reuse of resources.

    Performance-based economy includes several practices, including:

    • Circular design: the design of products and services designed to be reused, repaired or recycled at the end of their life cycle.
    • Circular economy: the adoption of production processes that involve the recovery and reuse of resources, through the recycling, reuse and restoration of materials and components.
    • Circular services: the offer of services that allow you to use products in a shared way, through sharing, rental or the leasing.

    The performance economy can be an opportunity for companies to improve their sustainability, generating economic and environmental value.

    However, it is necessary that the practices adopted are actually circular and not just a greenwashing, and that they are supported by appropriate policies and regulations at national and international level.

  • Circular Economy

    Sharing Economy

    The sharing economy is an economic model that is based on the sharing of goods and services between individuals, organizations and communities, through digital platforms and communication technologies.

    The main objective of the sharing economy is to maximize the use of resources and reduce waste, favoring access to goods and services without the need to purchase ownership.

    The sharing economy includes several activities and services, including:

    • Car sharing: car sharing between multiple people, via online platforms that allow you to book and use a shared vehicle.
    • Home sharing: the sharing of homes between individuals, through online platforms that allow you to rent a room or an entire house to tourists or people looking for temporary accommodation.
    • Coworking: sharing work spaces between professionals and entrepreneurs, who can take advantage of offices, meeting rooms and other shared services.
    • Peer-to-peer lending: the sharing of financial resources between individuals, through online platforms that allow you to invest or lend money to other individuals.

    L’economia della condivisione può rappresentare un’alternativa sostenibile al modello economico tradizionale, favorendo l’utilizzo delle risorse esistenti e riducendo gli sprechi.

  • Green Marketing Circular Economy

    Green Deal

    The Green Deal is a comprehensive plan proposed by the European Union (EU) to tackle climate change and achieve carbon neutrality by 2050.

    The main goal of the Green Deal is to transform the EU’s economy to a sustainable, low-carbon, and circular economy that will benefit both the environment and society.

    The Green Deal focuses on several key areas, including:

    • Climate action: The EU aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2050.
    • Sustainable energy: The Green Deal aims to increase the share of renewable energy in the EU’s energy mix and improve energy efficiency.
    • Sustainable transport: The EU aims to promote sustainable transport, including the development of electric vehicles and the deployment of alternative fuels.
    • Circular economy: The Green Deal aims to promote a circular economy that reduces waste and promotes the reuse and recycling of materials.
    • Biodiversity: The EU aims to protect and restore biodiversity and ecosystems, including forests, oceans, and freshwater.

    The Green Deal is a significant and ambitious initiative that requires a collective effort from all EU Member States, businesses, and citizens to achieve its goals.

  • Companies Circular Economy

    End of Life of a Product

    The end of life of a product refers to the phase in which a product has reached the end of its useful life and is disposed of or recycled.

    In Linear Cycle systems, this moment coincides with the disposal of the product itself, while in the Circular Economy, waste is not seen as waste, but as a new input that re-enters the economic-productive circle, creating a closed system, where the scrap is the secondary raw material.

    To improve end-of-life product management, many countries have introduced laws and regulations that require companies to manage their products sustainably.

    This includes extended producer responsibility (EPR), which requires manufacturers to take responsibility for the management of their end-of-life products, including the collection, recycling and appropriate disposal of products.

    In addition, the circular economy encourages the adoption of business models based on the provision of services rather than the sale of products.

    In this way, the company takes charge of product management at the end of life, promoting repair, reuse or recycling, and can create new job opportunities and innovation.

  • Companies Circular Economy

    Product life extension

    Product life extension is a concept that refers to a product’s ability to last longer than normal, while maintaining its functionality and features.

    Product life extension is a key concept of the circular economy, which aims to reduce the consumption of natural resources and minimize waste production through the use of sustainable production and consumption models.

    In a circular economy, product life extension is seen as a solution to counteract the pattern of over-consumption and waste generation.

    It can be achieved through the adoption of strategies such as repair, reuse and recycling, such as maintaining the value of existing materials and products, reducing the need to produce new materials and products and reducing the amount of waste.

    There are several economic advantages, including the creation of new jobs in the repair and maintenance sector, the saving on production costs through the use of recycled materials and the creation of new markets for regenerated and repaired products, as well as greater customer satisfaction, since durable and high quality products can offer better value for money and can meet the needs of consumers for longer periods of time.

  • Green Marketing Circular Economy

    Green Economy

    The green economy is a model of economic development that aims to achieve sustainable economic growth and environmental protection simultaneously.

    The objective of the green economy is to create production and consumption systems that are able to preserve natural resources and promote social and economic welfare.

    This model is based on the idea that sustainable development is only possible if innovative solutions are found to meet environmental and economic challenges.

    In essence, the green economy aims to create a fairer and more sustainable economic system that can meet the needs of current generations without compromising the resources and opportunities of future generations.

  • Companies Circular Economy


    The cascade cycle is a circular economy model in which waste is used as a resource for the production of new products, so as to avoid material waste and reduce environmental impact.

    The cascade cycle involves a series of steps in which materials are recovered, disassembled, repaired and recycled, thus creating a production chain in which each phase exploits the materials and resources from the previous phase.

    This reduces production costs, limits the exploitation of natural resources and reduces greenhouse gas emissions.

    The cascade cycle is one of the key strategies for the circular economy, as it allows to maximize the value of materials and resources, minimizing environmental impact and creating new opportunities for sustainable economic development.

  • Circular Economy Companies

    Industrial Ecology

    Industrial ecology is an interdisciplinary field of study that focuses on the design and optimization of industrial systems in order to minimize environmental impact.

    The main objective of industrial ecology is to create sustainable production systems that minimize the consumption of natural resources, waste production and pollution.

    In practice, industrial ecology seeks to create a virtuous cycle in which one company’s waste becomes a resource for another, so as to reduce waste production and pressure on the environment.

  • Green Marketing Circular Economy

    Green Chemistry

    According to a specific idea known as “green chemistry”, chemical and chemical engineering studies are based on the creation of goods and procedures that reduce or completely eliminate the use and production of hazardous substances.

    It refers to the entire life cycle of a chemical, including its creation, use and disposal.

    It is, by definition, the design of chemical products and processes that minimize or completely avoid the use or generation of compounds that could endanger people or the environment.

    Since it is preferable to avoid waste rather than treat it or dispose of it after its production, synthetic arrangements for the use and production of chemicals with the least possible amount of toxicity should be established.

  • Circular Economy Green Marketing


    The study and imitation of biological and biomechanical processes in nature and living beings is known as biomimicry and serves as a source of inspiration for the progress of human endeavors and technology.

    Nature is used in the design of technical products and articles as a model, measure and guide.

    The creation of projects based on biomimicry requires an understanding of how natural systems work to apply these principles to human inventions.

  • Circular Economy Green Marketing


    Biomass is the organic material produced by plants and animals that has been specifically treated for use as biofuel in power plants.

    It is a renewable energy source that reduces dependence on fossil fuels. The organic materials from which energy is derived are agricultural waste, green twigs from forestry and agriculture, municipal organic waste, processing waste from the agri-food industry, firewood residues and algae.

    The combustion of biomass produces heat and generates a quantity of carbon dioxide similar to that produced by a typical process of photosynthesis in nature.

  • Green Marketing Circular Economy

    The 2030 Agenda

    The 2030 Agenda, approved on 25 September 2015 at the General Assembly of the United Nations and signed by the 193 UN member countries, indicates 17 objectives (sdgs) and 169 “targets” or sub-targets to be reached by 2030.

    It represents the new global reference framework for national and international efforts to find common solutions to the great challenges of the planet, such as extreme poverty, climate change, environmental degradation and health crises.

    They are common Objectives that concern all countries and all individuals: no one is excluded from them, nor must they be left behind along the necessary path to bring the world on the path to sustainability.

  • Circular Economy Companies

    Branding Verde

    With the term Green Branding, we mean all communication and promotion activities, implemented by companies, associations or startups, aimed at enhancing the aspects and values of sustainability of their brand, in line with environmental protection, respecting the principles of environmental sustainability

    Green Branding offers Green businesses creative and effective tools to spread their messages through eco-sustainable communication activities.

  • Green Marketing Circular Economy

    Circular Bioeconomy

    According to the definition of the European Commission, the bioeconomy “concerns all sectors and systems based on biological resources (animal and plant species, micro-organisms and the resulting biomass, including organic waste)”, or includes “all primary production sectors using and producing biological resources (agriculture, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture), and all economic and industrial sectors using biological resources and processes for the production of food, feed, bio-based products, energy and services”.

    Moving away from fossil raw materials towards a circular and sustainable economy based on biological resources and processes and oriented to the natural cycles of materials, is what represents the concept of bioeconomy.

  • Circular Economy


    Eco-efficiency is that process or set of processes that leads to the realisation of a product (understood as a physical product or service) trying to have the lowest possible environmental impact, starting from the abstraction of the raw material to the consumption and disposal of the object.

    Although, Eco-efficiency improves resource productivity, it remains locked into the current production and consumption model and, in essence, makes the current linear model less negative.


  • Circular Economy


    Eco-efficacy is used as a yardstick to assess the ability of a process or processes to achieve its objectives, while keeping its impacts and consequences on the ecosystems involved under control during the entire product life cycle.

    The purpose of this tool is to create new solutions designed to be environmentally sound, so that human activity can have an impact that is good for the world.

  • Circular Economy


    Ecodesign (or sustainable design/engineering) is an economic model that involves the entire process of conception, design, sale on the market and disposal of an environmentally friendly product by reducing the negative impact it could have on the ecosystem to a minimum.

    Consequently, the materials chosen must be sustainable and recyclable with the utmost respect for the environment and primary resources.

  • Circular Economy

    Cradle to Gate

    “From the Cradle to the Gate” refers to the phase also present in LCA analysis, i.e. the life cycle analysis of the product, which starts from the extraction of virgin raw materials until the product leaves the factory.

    This phase of the LCA is crucial not only to correctly construct the sustainability profile of a product but also to identify potential waste and opportunities for optimisation and savings.

  • Circular Economy

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation

    The Ellen MacArthur Foundation, founded in 2010 by Ellen MacArthur, is an international organisation that is a point of reference on issues such as sustainability and the circular economy.

    Headquartered in the UK, it now works with major brands and organisations to accelerate the transition to a greener, circular economy by building partnerships and organising initiatives to raise community awareness on these issues.

  • Circular Economy

    Life Cycle Assessment

    Life Cycle Assessment(LCA) is a standardised method for assessing, quantifying and calculating the environmental impact (e.g. CO2 emissions) of the entire life cycle of a product/service.

    The LCA stardard is internationally regulated by ISO 14040:2006 – Principles and Framework and ISO 14044:2006 – Requirements and guidelines.

    The Life Cycle Assessment therefore provides a very detailed picture of the relationships between human actions and the surrounding ecosystem and their relative impact on the environment.


  • Circular Economy

    Economia Circolare

    L’economia circolare è un modello economico che prevede un sistema di produzione e consumo che implica la condivisione, il prestito, il riutilizzo, la riparazione, il ricondizionamento e il riciclo dei materiali e prodotti esistenti il più a lungo possibile. In questo modo si estende il ciclo di vita dei prodotti, contribuendo a ridurre i rifiuti al minimo, puntando piuttosto alla performance dei prodotti e dei sistemi.


    I principi dell’economia circolare sono un cambio di paradigma con il tradizionale modello economico lineare, fondato sullo schema “estrarre, produrre, utilizzare e gettare”. Il modello economico tradizionale dipende dalla disponibilità di grandi quantità di materiali e energia facilmente reperibili e a basso prezzo.