Alphabetical order

  • Circular Economy

    Life Cycle Inventory

    Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) is a technique used in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to systematically collect and quantify information about inputs, outputs, and environmental impacts associated with a product, process, or service throughout its life cycle.

    The quality and completeness of LCI data has a significant impact on the accuracy and reliability of LCA results.

    The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has published standards for conducting LCAs, including ISO 14040 and ISO 14044, which provide guidelines for the LCI phase of evaluation.

  • Circular Economy

    Life Cycle Management

    Life Cycle Management, or LCM, is an approach designed to ensure a more sustainable management of the value chain.

    The LCM is decision support tool specifically designed for companies of any size and is often implemented by other tools such as LCA, LCC, SLCA, LCT.

    The main objective of the LCM is to maximize the value of the product or service to the customer and the company, while reducing environmental impact and long-term spending.

    The LCM also aims to improve the sustainability of the product or service, reducing the consumption of resources and minimizing the negative effects on the environment.

  • Circular Economy

    Life Cycle Costing

    Life Cycle Costing, or LCC, is a method of evaluating the total cost of a product, service, or system throughout its entire life cycle, from design to production, use, and end of life.

    Life cycle cost assessment is useful to help make informed decisions about choosing products and services, as it takes into account all long-term costs, not just initial purchase costs.


  • Circular Economy

    Linear Economy

    The linear economy is a traditional economic model based on the use of natural and material resources to produce goods, which are then used and, at the end of their life cycle, disposed of as waste.

    This model is characterized by a production logic “produce, consume, dispose of”, which does not take into account the environmental and social consequences of production activities.

    This model generates a high amount of waste and pollution, aggravates resource scarcity problems and contributes to climate change.

    The linear economy has been adopted globally for decades and has generated a number of negative impacts on the environment and society, including biodiversity loss, air and water pollution, climate change and resource scarcity.

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the adoption of Circular Economy models, which provide for the recovery and reuse of resources, in order to reduce waste and promote environmental sustainability.

  • Circular Economy

    Life Cycle Assessment

    Life Cycle Assessment(LCA) is a standardised method for assessing, quantifying and calculating the environmental impact (e.g. CO2 emissions) of the entire life cycle of a product/service.

    The LCA stardard is internationally regulated by ISO 14040:2006 – Principles and Framework and ISO 14044:2006 – Requirements and guidelines.

    The Life Cycle Assessment therefore provides a very detailed picture of the relationships between human actions and the surrounding ecosystem and their relative impact on the environment.