Alphabetical order

  • Legislation

    Corporate Social Responsibility

    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) is a concept that refers to the responsibility that companies have towards the company in which they operate.

    CSR is an integrated, non-compulsory approach to business management that takes into account social, environmental and governance issues and aims to create value for the company and for society as a whole.

    CSR implies that companies should not only pursue the goal of maximising profit, but also act ethically, sustainably and responsibly towards society and the environment in which they operate.

  • Circular Economy Communication

    Carbon Zero

    “Carbon zero” is a term similar to “carbon neutrality” and indicates the same goal of balancing the emissions of greenhouse gases produced by human activities with the ability of the Earth to absorb them.

    In general, the term “carbon zero” refers to situations where the net environmental impact of human activities on the environment is zero in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, while the term “carbon neutrality” refers to situations where greenhouse gas emissions are balanced by a compensatory action that removes or reduces carbon emissions from the atmosphere.

    Both terms are important targets for combating climate change and require concrete actions such as the use of renewable energy, energy efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  • Circular Economy

    Carbon Neutrality

    Carbon Neutrality consists in achieving a balance between the emissions of greenhouse gases produced by human activities and the absorption capacity of the planet.

    In order to achieve this, which the EU has declared as a target to be achieved by 2050, greenhouse gas emissions must be drastically reduced through more sustainable practices and the use of clean technologies, such as renewable energy sources.

    In addition, it may be necessary to offset residual emissions through forest conservation, sustainable agriculture and other methods that remove carbon from the atmosphere.

  • Circular Economy

    Circularity Indicators

    The Indicators of Circularity are tools of different type and form useful to the companies in order to understand their degree of circularity to general level or the level of circularity of a determined action, product or service.

    Some examples of these indicators are Circulytics and Material Circularity Indicator, both created by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation.


  • Circular Economy

    Carbon Footprint

    The carbon footprint is a measure of the environmental impact of human activities, in particular greenhouse gas emissions from energy consumption, transport use, industrial and agricultural activities, and waste management.

    The carbon footprint measures the emissions, in particular, of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also of other gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), emitted into the atmosphere due to human activities.

    The carbon footprint can be calculated at the individual, company or entire country level, and is expressed in tons of CO2 equivalent.

    The calculation of the carbon footprint takes into account all phases of the life cycle of a product or service, from production to distribution, from consumption to disposal, and evaluates the energy used, the materials used, the distances travelled and other variables.

    The carbon footprint has become an important tool in the fight against climate change, as it allows the identification of the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions and the identification of the actions needed to reduce them.

  • Circular Economy


    The cascade cycle is a circular economy model in which waste is used as a resource for the production of new products, so as to avoid material waste and reduce environmental impact.

    The cascade cycle involves a series of steps in which materials are recovered, disassembled, repaired and recycled, thus creating a production chain in which each phase exploits the materials and resources from the previous phase.

    This reduces production costs, limits the exploitation of natural resources and reduces greenhouse gas emissions.

    The cascade cycle is one of the key strategies for the circular economy, as it allows to maximize the value of materials and resources, minimizing environmental impact and creating new opportunities for sustainable economic development.

  • Legislation


    In order to find the most environmentally friendly design solution, product or service throughout its life cycle, taking into account the profitability of the market, minimum environmental criteria (CAM) are environmental requirements established for the various stages of the purchase process.

    By decree of the Ministry of Ecological Transition, CAMs are defined as a component of the Plan for the Environmental Sustainability of Consumption in the Public Administration Sector.


  • Circular Economy

    Circular Bioeconomy

    According to the definition of the European Commission, the bioeconomy “concerns all sectors and systems based on biological resources (animal and plant species, micro-organisms and the resulting biomass, including organic waste)”, or includes “all primary production sectors using and producing biological resources (agriculture, forestry, fisheries and aquaculture), and all economic and industrial sectors using biological resources and processes for the production of food, feed, bio-based products, energy and services”.

    Moving away from fossil raw materials towards a circular and sustainable economy based on biological resources and processes and oriented to the natural cycles of materials, is what represents the concept of bioeconomy.

  • Circular Economy

    Cradle to Gate

    “From the Cradle to the Gate” refers to the phase also present in LCA analysis, i.e. the life cycle analysis of the product, which starts from the extraction of virgin raw materials until the product leaves the factory.

    This phase of the LCA is crucial not only to correctly construct the sustainability profile of a product but also to identify potential waste and opportunities for optimisation and savings.

  • Circular Economy

    Circular Economy

    The circular economy is an economic model involving a production and consumption system that involves sharing, lending, reusing, repairing, reconditioning and recycling existing materials and products for as long as possible. In this way, the life cycle of products is extended, helping to minimise waste, focusing instead on the performance of products and systems.


    I principi dell’economia circolare sono un cambio di paradigma con il tradizionale modello economico lineare, fondato sullo schema “estrarre, produrre, utilizzare e gettare”. Il modello economico tradizionale dipende dalla disponibilità di grandi quantità di materiali e energia facilmente reperibili e a basso prezzo.