Alphabetical order

  • Aziende


    The AFNOR XP X30-901 standard is the French standard published in 2018 by the AFNOR standardization body and is the only international reference for the implementation of a management system for the circular economy of an organization.

    It was created to be an international reference point for all companies that want to adopt circular solutions within their value chain, production systems or service delivery.

    It also allows organizations to provide a methodology for managing and reporting on one or more projects for the transition to circular economy models.

  • Circular Economy

    Blue Economy

    The Blue Economy is a branch of the Green Economy, an economic model dedicated to the construction of a sustainable economic system through technological innovation.

    The goal of the blue economy is to achieve zero carbon emissions.

    The Blue Economy is based on innovation through the development of physical principles and the reuse of existing resources, for example, using scientific methods such as biomimicry.

    The model was proposed by Gunter Pauli in the book: “The Blue Economy: 10 years, 100 Innovation, 100 Million jobs”.

  • Green Marketing

    Green Hushing

    The term Green Hushing refers to false or misleading claims of corporate sustainability, and is used when a company has announced a climate goal, but does not intend to clearly advertise its commitment to achieving it.

    It is the so-called “green silence”.

    This can complicate the assessment of corporate climate goals, limit knowledge sharing on decarbonisation, lead to less ambitious goals and miss opportunities for cross-sectoral collaboration.

  • Green Marketing

    Anaerobic Digestion

    Anaerobic digestion is a biological process in which microorganisms decompose organic matter in the absence of oxygen to produce biogas, a methane-rich gas used as a renewable energy source.

    Anaerobic digestion occurs in a closed environment called an anaerobic reactor.

    The process involves bacteria that transform organic matter into a mixture of biogas and residual liquid called digestate.

    Anaerobic digestion is a sustainable technology that can help reduce greenhouse gas emissions, manage organic waste and produce renewable energy.

  • Green Marketing

    Carbon Zero

    “Carbon zero” is a term similar to “carbon neutrality” and indicates the same goal of balancing the emissions of greenhouse gases produced by human activities with the ability of the Earth to absorb them.

    In general, the term “carbon zero” refers to situations where the net environmental impact of human activities on the environment is zero in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, while the term “carbon neutrality” refers to situations where greenhouse gas emissions are balanced by a compensatory action that removes or reduces carbon emissions from the atmosphere.

    Both terms are important targets for combating climate change and require concrete actions such as the use of renewable energy, energy efficiency and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  • Companies Green Marketing

    BS 8001

    The BS 8001 standard is the English standard published in 2017 by the British standardization body BSI.

    It is the first standard explicitly created to guide companies in the transition to more circular production models and allows to measure the degree of circular maturity achieved by an organization.

    The BS 8001 standard aims to help organizations and individuals to consider and implement more circular and sustainable practices within their businesses, introducing better ways of working, providing more circular products and services or redesigning their entire business model.

  • Companies Green Marketing

    AFNOR XP X30-901

    The AFNOR XP X30-901 standard is the French standard published in 2018 by the AFNOR standardization body and is the only international reference for the implementation of a management system for the circular economy of an organization.

    It was created to be an international reference point for all companies that want to adopt circular solutions within their value chain, production systems or service delivery.

    It also allows organizations to provide a methodology for managing and reporting on one or more projects for the transition to circular economy models.

  • Green Marketing

    Carbon Neutrality

    Carbon Neutrality consists in achieving a balance between the emissions of greenhouse gases produced by human activities and the absorption capacity of the planet.

    In order to achieve this, which the EU has declared as a target to be achieved by 2050, greenhouse gas emissions must be drastically reduced through more sustainable practices and the use of clean technologies, such as renewable energy sources.

    In addition, it may be necessary to offset residual emissions through forest conservation, sustainable agriculture and other methods that remove carbon from the atmosphere.

  • Circular Economy


    Neomaterials are innovative materials derived from production processes that follow the principles of the Circular Economy.

    There are 3 broad categories of neomaterials:

    • “bio-based”, materials of plant and animal origin or formed by micro-organisms.
    • The “neo-classics”, made from recycled materials that are now the basis of various production processes.
    • The “ex novo”, obtained thanks to waste and waste recovery processes of different industries and waste from incinerators and extracting CO2 from the atmosphere.
  • Circular Economy Companies

    Secondary Raw Material

    The Second Raw Material is a production waste, which, through specific recovery processes, is used in a production process equal to or different from the one that generated it.

    In this context, Italy refers to the category called by-product.

    The second raw material plays a crucial role in the Circular Economy, as it allows to reduce the dependence on virgin raw materials, allowing to reduce the environmental impact associated with the extraction of new raw materials and the production of products from scratch.

    Through the recycling of existing materials, the second raw material allows to create a longer life cycle for products and to reduce the amount of waste destined for landfills.

  • Companies

    Additive Manufacturing

    Additive manufacturing, also known as 3D printing, is a production technology in which a three-dimensional object is created layer by layer from a digital model.

    The additive manufacturing process involves the use of a 3D printer, which is programmed with the digital model of the object to be produced.

    The 3D printer then uses one of several 3D printing methods, including molten filament deposition, stereolithography, and selective laser sintering, to create the object layer by layer.

    Additive manufacturing offers several advantages over traditional production methods:

    • allows you to create complex and customized objects quickly and efficiently, without having to create expensive production tools or rely on machining processes.
    • allows you to reduce material waste, as the material is used only where it is needed.
    • reduces production costs, as it allows efficient production of even small quantities of objects.
  • Circular Economy Companies

    Machines as a Service

    Machine as a service (maas) is a business model where companies provide their customers with access to machines or equipment as a service, rather than selling the machines themselves.

    It is an example of the more general product-as-a-service.

    In this business model, the companies that provide the service are responsible for the purchase, maintenance and upgrade of the machines, while customers pay only for their actual use, without having to invest in their acquisition.

    In this way, the companies that offer the service can provide high quality and updated machines, ensure greater flexibility and cost control for customers, and improve resource utilization, creating long-lasting relationships with customers.

  • Circular Economy Companies

    Reverse Logistics

    Reverse logistics is the process of backward planning of material flows, from the point of consumption to the point of origin, in order to recover value or ensure proper disposal or recycling of products, materials or waste.

    Unlike traditional logistics, which deals with the transport of products from the producer to the final consumer, reverse logistics manages the movement of used products, defective or no longer necessary from the point of end of life, for their recycling, repair and reuse.

    In a circular economy, where products and materials are designed to be reused and recycled, reverse logistics allows the recovery of useful materials and products that would otherwise have been lost, creating new business and recycling opportunities.

    Reverse logistics is a key element of environmental sustainability and can bring many benefits to the companies that implement it, including reducing costs and increasing efficiency, as well as creating a competitive advantage in the market.

  • Companies

    Life Cycle Management

    Life Cycle Management, or LCM, is an approach designed to ensure a more sustainable management of the value chain.

    The LCM is decision support tool specifically designed for companies of any size and is often implemented by other tools such as LCA, LCC, SLCA, LCT.

    The main objective of the LCM is to maximize the value of the product or service to the customer and the company, while reducing environmental impact and long-term spending.

    The LCM also aims to improve the sustainability of the product or service, reducing the consumption of resources and minimizing the negative effects on the environment.

  • Companies

    Life Cycle Costing

    Life Cycle Costing, or LCC, is a method of evaluating the total cost of a product, service, or system throughout its entire life cycle, from design to production, use, and end of life.

    This method allows you to analyze the total cost of the product or service, including maintenance, repair, disposal and replacement costs.

    Life cycle cost assessment is useful to help make informed decisions about choosing products and services, as it takes into account all long-term costs, not just initial purchase costs.

    This allows you to identify the most economical and sustainable options in the long run.

    In order to perform a life cycle cost assessment, each phase of the product or service life cycle shall be analysed and the costs associated with each phase identified and, once all costs have been identified, you can sum the total cost of the life cycle and compare the costs of the different options.

    This enables informed decisions based on overall costs and long-term sustainability.

  • Companies Green Marketing

    ISO 14040

    ISO 14040 is an international standard that provides guidelines for life cycle assessment (LCA) of products and services.

    The standard describes the principles and requirements for carrying out a life cycle analysis and establishes the procedures for the environmental impact assessment.

    Life Cycle Analysis is a methodology used to assess the environmental impact of a product or service throughout its life cycle, from production to disposal.

    ISO 14040 establishes the following principles for life cycle analysis:

    • Definition of the objective and scope of the analysis;
    • Product or service life cycle analysis, identifying life cycle stages and related environmental information;
    • Environmental impact assessment, identifying environmental impacts and assessing their severity;
    • Interpretation of the results, evaluating the results of the analysis and identifying opportunities for improvement.

    The use of ISO 14040 provides useful information to improve the sustainability of products and services and to promote the adoption of sustainable practices in industry.

  • Circular Economy

    Circularity Indicators

    The Indicators of Circularity are tools of different type and form useful to the companies in order to understand their degree of circularity to general level or the level of circularity of a determined action, product or service.

    Some examples of these indicators are Circulytics and Material Circularity Indicator, both created by the Ellen MacArthur Foundation.


  • Green Marketing

    Carbon Footprint

    The carbon footprint is a measure of the environmental impact of human activities, in particular greenhouse gas emissions from energy consumption, transport use, industrial and agricultural activities, and waste management.

    The carbon footprint measures the emissions, in particular, of carbon dioxide (CO2), but also of other gases such as methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O), emitted into the atmosphere due to human activities.

    The carbon footprint can be calculated at the individual, company or entire country level, and is expressed in tons of CO2 equivalent.

    The calculation of the carbon footprint takes into account all phases of the life cycle of a product or service, from production to distribution, from consumption to disposal, and evaluates the energy used, the materials used, the distances travelled and other variables.

    The carbon footprint has become an important tool in the fight against climate change, as it allows the identification of the main sources of greenhouse gas emissions and the identification of the actions needed to reduce them.

  • Certifications


    The Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) is an international non-governmental organization that deals with the certification of sustainably managed forests.

    The FSC aims to promote responsible forest management at a global level, through the definition of standards and criteria for sustainable forest management and the award of certifications to those companies that comply with these standards.

    The FSC certification ensures that forest management is sustainable and responsible, respecting the rights of workers and local communities, protecting biodiversity and preventing deforestation.

    Companies that adopt the FSC certification can use the FSC mark on their products, indicating that they come from sustainably and responsibly managed forests.

    The FSC certification system provides for the adoption of standards for forest management, the traceability of raw materials and the chain of custody of forest products, in order to ensure that the final products are effectively produced in a sustainable way.

  • Circular Economy Companies

    Linear Economy

    The linear economy is a traditional economic model based on the use of natural and material resources to produce goods, which are then used and, at the end of their life cycle, disposed of as waste.

    This model is characterized by a production logic “produce, consume, dispose of”, which does not take into account the environmental and social consequences of production activities.

    This model generates a high amount of waste and pollution, aggravates resource scarcity problems and contributes to climate change.

    The linear economy has been adopted globally for decades and has generated a number of negative impacts on the environment and society, including biodiversity loss, air and water pollution, climate change and resource scarcity.

    In recent years, there has been a growing interest in the adoption of Circular Economy models, which provide for the recovery and reuse of resources, in order to reduce waste and promote environmental sustainability.

  • Circular Economy Companies

    Perfomance-based Economy

    Performance-based economy is an economic model that combines business performance management with the adoption of circular practices.

    The main objective is to maximize the economic and environmental value generated by business activities, reducing waste and promoting the recovery and reuse of resources.

    Performance-based economy includes several practices, including:

    • Circular design: the design of products and services designed to be reused, repaired or recycled at the end of their life cycle.
    • Circular economy: the adoption of production processes that involve the recovery and reuse of resources, through the recycling, reuse and restoration of materials and components.
    • Circular services: the offer of services that allow you to use products in a shared way, through sharing, rental or the leasing.

    The performance economy can be an opportunity for companies to improve their sustainability, generating economic and environmental value.

    However, it is necessary that the practices adopted are actually circular and not just a greenwashing, and that they are supported by appropriate policies and regulations at national and international level.

  • Circular Economy

    Sharing Economy

    The sharing economy is an economic model that is based on the sharing of goods and services between individuals, organizations and communities, through digital platforms and communication technologies.

    The main objective of the sharing economy is to maximize the use of resources and reduce waste, favoring access to goods and services without the need to purchase ownership.

    The sharing economy includes several activities and services, including:

    • Car sharing: car sharing between multiple people, via online platforms that allow you to book and use a shared vehicle.
    • Home sharing: the sharing of homes between individuals, through online platforms that allow you to rent a room or an entire house to tourists or people looking for temporary accommodation.
    • Coworking: sharing work spaces between professionals and entrepreneurs, who can take advantage of offices, meeting rooms and other shared services.
    • Peer-to-peer lending: the sharing of financial resources between individuals, through online platforms that allow you to invest or lend money to other individuals.

    L’economia della condivisione può rappresentare un’alternativa sostenibile al modello economico tradizionale, favorendo l’utilizzo delle risorse esistenti e riducendo gli sprechi.

  • Circular Economy Green Marketing

    Green Deal

    The Green Deal is a comprehensive plan proposed by the European Union (EU) to tackle climate change and achieve carbon neutrality by 2050.

    The main goal of the Green Deal is to transform the EU’s economy to a sustainable, low-carbon, and circular economy that will benefit both the environment and society.

    The Green Deal focuses on several key areas, including:

    • Climate action: The EU aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by at least 55% by 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by 2050.
    • Sustainable energy: The Green Deal aims to increase the share of renewable energy in the EU’s energy mix and improve energy efficiency.
    • Sustainable transport: The EU aims to promote sustainable transport, including the development of electric vehicles and the deployment of alternative fuels.
    • Circular economy: The Green Deal aims to promote a circular economy that reduces waste and promotes the reuse and recycling of materials.
    • Biodiversity: The EU aims to protect and restore biodiversity and ecosystems, including forests, oceans, and freshwater.

    The Green Deal is a significant and ambitious initiative that requires a collective effort from all EU Member States, businesses, and citizens to achieve its goals.

  • Circular Economy Companies

    End of Life of a Product

    The end of life of a product refers to the phase in which a product has reached the end of its useful life and is disposed of or recycled.

    In Linear Cycle systems, this moment coincides with the disposal of the product itself, while in the Circular Economy, waste is not seen as waste, but as a new input that re-enters the economic-productive circle, creating a closed system, where the scrap is the secondary raw material.

    To improve end-of-life product management, many countries have introduced laws and regulations that require companies to manage their products sustainably.

    This includes extended producer responsibility (EPR), which requires manufacturers to take responsibility for the management of their end-of-life products, including the collection, recycling and appropriate disposal of products.

    In addition, the circular economy encourages the adoption of business models based on the provision of services rather than the sale of products.

    In this way, the company takes charge of product management at the end of life, promoting repair, reuse or recycling, and can create new job opportunities and innovation.

  • Companies Green Marketing


    Environmental Social Governance (ESG) is a set of criteria that are used by investors and companies to assess the degree of sustainability and social responsibility of business activities.

    In particular, the ESG criteria are divided into three main categories:

    • Environmental: it concerns the impact of the company on the environment, for example its greenhouse gas emissions, the use of water and natural resources, waste management and the sustainability of the entire supply chain.
    • Social: Assess the company’s impact on society, such as workers’ health and safety, diversity and inclusion policies, human rights, relations with local communities, and consumer protection.
    • Governance: concerns the governance structure of the company, such as the composition of the board of directors, the remuneration of managers, transparency of decision-making and risk management.

    The adoption of ESG criteria has become increasingly important in recent years, as these factors are increasingly relevant to investors and consumers who want to support companies with a sustainable footprint.

  • Companies

    Green Washing

    Green washing is a term that indicates the practice of using marketing or communication techniques to promote products or services as ecological or sustainable, when in reality they are not or have a very limited environmental impact.

    In other words, it is a way of making a company appear to be committed to the environment without any real action to support that commitment.

    Green washing is considered ethically questionable, as it can be misleading for consumers and hinder real progress in sustainability

  • Companies Green Marketing

    Environmental Certification

    The environmental certification is a certificate that certifies through technical and regulatory criteria, the commitment of a company to limit its negative impact on the environment.

    It is issued by independent bodies (in Italy, Accredia) that evaluate the policies, processes and products of the organization and confirm that they comply with certain environmental standards.

    There are several environmental certifications available globally, including ISO 14001 certification, which sets out requirements for an environmental management system, and LEED (Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design) certificationwhich assesses the environmental impact of buildings and promotes sustainability, the Ecolabel and EMAS.

    Environmental certification can lead to several benefits for companies, including greater environmental compliance, compliance with environmental regulations, cost reduction through energy efficiency and the use of sustainable materials and differentiation from the point of view of competition.

    In addition, environmental certification can also increase consumer confidence in the company’s products and practices and improve the company’s reputation.

  • Companies Green Marketing

    Environmental Label

    The environmental label is a labelling and certification system that is used to identify products that have a reduced environmental impact compared to other similar products on the market.

    The Environmental Label aims to declare the sustainability characteristics of a product or service.

    They are fundamental tools to combat the practice of Green Washing by bodies, organizations and companies, so as to make communication to the final consumer as transparent as possible, so that they can make more sustainable purchasing choices.

    In addition, the environmental label can also motivate companies to produce more sustainable products, as companies that obtain the environmental label can stand out from the competition and gain a reputation for sustainability.

    In Europe, the most well-known environmental labelling system is the EU Ecolabel, which indicates that the product has been produced according to strict environmental standards established by the European Union.

  • Circular Economy Companies

    Product life extension

    Product life extension is a concept that refers to a product’s ability to last longer than normal, while maintaining its functionality and features.

    Product life extension is a key concept of the circular economy, which aims to reduce the consumption of natural resources and minimize waste production through the use of sustainable production and consumption models.

    In a circular economy, product life extension is seen as a solution to counteract the pattern of over-consumption and waste generation.

    It can be achieved through the adoption of strategies such as repair, reuse and recycling, such as maintaining the value of existing materials and products, reducing the need to produce new materials and products and reducing the amount of waste.

    There are several economic advantages, including the creation of new jobs in the repair and maintenance sector, the saving on production costs through the use of recycled materials and the creation of new markets for regenerated and repaired products, as well as greater customer satisfaction, since durable and high quality products can offer better value for money and can meet the needs of consumers for longer periods of time.

  • Green Marketing

    Renewable Energy

    Renewable energies are those sources of energy that regenerate naturally over time and do not run out, such as the sun, wind, water, biomass and geothermal energy, and can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and limit climate change.

    These energy sources are becoming increasingly important globally, as they represent a sustainable alternative to non-renewable energy sources, such as oil, gas and coal, that are finite and produce greenhouse gas emissions that contribute to climate change.

    Renewable energies can be used to produce electricity, heating, cooling and transport.

    Among the technologies used for the production of renewable energy are photovoltaic solar panels for the production of solar energy, wind turbines for the production of wind energy, hydroelectric power plants for the production of hydroelectric power and geothermal systems for the production of geothermal energy.

  • Green Marketing

    Sustainable Finance

    Sustainable Finance is that branch of finance that operates within the market by analysing investments through two main instruments: ESG criteria and Socially Responsible Investment (ESG).

  • Environmental Certification

    Environmental certification is a certificate that certifies, through technical and regulatory criteria, a company’s commitment to limiting its negative impact on the environment.

    Examples of certification are the Ecolabel, ISO 14001, EMAS, ISO 50001.

    To obtain these recognitions, companies must apply to an authorised independent body. In Italy, authorisation is given by Accredia, the Italian Accreditation Body.

  • Environmental Label

    The Environmental Label aims to declare the sustainability characteristics of a product or service.

    They are fundamental tools to counteract the practice of Green Washing by authorities, organisations and companies, so as to make communication to the end consumer as transparent as possible, helping them in their purchasing choices.

  • Product Life Extension

    Product Life Extension is a pattern of use of an object or product that aims to maximise the use that can be made of that product.

    In this way, an attempt is made to reduce the waste associated with the normal consumption for which the object was intended.

  • Circular Economy


    Eco-efficiency is that process or set of processes that leads to the realisation of a product (understood as a physical product or service) trying to have the lowest possible environmental impact, starting from the abstraction of the raw material to the consumption and disposal of the object.

    Although, Eco-efficiency improves resource productivity, it remains locked into the current production and consumption model and, in essence, makes the current linear model less negative.


  • Circular Economy


    Eco-efficacy is used as a yardstick to assess the ability of a process or processes to achieve its objectives, while keeping its impacts and consequences on the ecosystems involved under control during the entire product life cycle.

    The purpose of this tool is to create new solutions designed to be environmentally sound, so that human activity can have an impact that is good for the world.

  • Circular Economy


    Ecodesign (or sustainable design/engineering) is an economic model that involves the entire process of conception, design, sale on the market and disposal of an environmentally friendly product by reducing the negative impact it could have on the ecosystem to a minimum.

    Consequently, the materials chosen must be sustainable and recyclable with the utmost respect for the environment and primary resources.

  • Circular Economy

    Cradle to Gate

    “From the Cradle to the Gate” refers to the phase also present in LCA analysis, i.e. the life cycle analysis of the product, which starts from the extraction of virgin raw materials until the product leaves the factory.

    This phase of the LCA is crucial not only to correctly construct the sustainability profile of a product but also to identify potential waste and opportunities for optimisation and savings.

  • Circular Economy

    Ellen MacArthur Foundation

    The Ellen MacArthur Foundation, founded in 2010 by Ellen MacArthur, is an international organisation that is a point of reference on issues such as sustainability and the circular economy.

    Headquartered in the UK, it now works with major brands and organisations to accelerate the transition to a greener, circular economy by building partnerships and organising initiatives to raise community awareness on these issues.

  • Certifications

    Environmental Product Declaration

    The Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) is a product-related environmental labelling (according to UNI ISO 14025:2006).

    This label makes it possible to communicate objective, comparable and credible information about the environmental performance of products and services assessed according to the LCA analysis methodology.

  • Circular Economy

    Economia Circolare EN

    L’economia circolare è un modello economico che prevede un sistema di produzione e consumo che implica la condivisione, il prestito, il riutilizzo, la riparazione, il ricondizionamento e il riciclo dei materiali e prodotti esistenti il più a lungo possibile. In questo modo si estende il ciclo di vita dei prodotti, contribuendo a ridurre i rifiuti al minimo, puntando piuttosto alla performance dei prodotti e dei sistemi.


    I principi dell’economia circolare sono un cambio di paradigma con il tradizionale modello economico lineare, fondato sullo schema “estrarre, produrre, utilizzare e gettare”. Il modello economico tradizionale dipende dalla disponibilità di grandi quantità di materiali e energia facilmente reperibili e a basso prezzo.